Living Systems


During the past two years, I've been exploring living systems.

As a result of taking the Capra Course given by Fritjof Capra, I am now focusing on the following Living Systems:

  • Cell
  • Organism
  • Person
  • Social System
  • Ecosystem (including Human Activity)

This exploration is using the concepts of System-of-Systems from Systems Engineering. This stresses the importance of finding whole systems that participate in a network of systems.

Types of Living Systems

The following diagram describes the relationship between the various types of living systems.

Living Systems Conceptual Model

At the same time, I've been exploring Peter Checkland's approach to System Classification. I am using this approach to understand the planetary systems that are creating our systemic problems of today.

These systems are:

  • Natural Systems
  • Human Activity Systems
  • Designed Physical Systems
  • Designed Abstract Systems
  • Transcendental Systems

When both the living systems and the classification systems are combined, the result is a Human Activity Ecosystem.

See the following: